What is The Back End?

This lesson gives an overview of where your website will finally live: web servers.The Back End of a website loosely consists of a server, databases, and APIs.

We’ll cover the following

  • What are web servers?
  • Web hosting services
  • Web server operating systems
    • Linux
      • CentOS
      • Debian
      • Ubuntu
      • Windows Server 2019
      • Mac OS X Server
      • Solaris

What are web servers?

A internet server is a system that provides content and services to customers over the Internet. Web servers are precisely like ordinary computers besides that they are more powerful and strong. Also, maximum servers don’t have a show like a screen or a display that most PCs do, however you can connect with them with SSH. To positioned it in reality, SSH is a manner to get another gadget’s terminal for your personal. A web server can ‘host’ a website, i.e., the webserver will have all of the code for the internet site on it: back and front and all of us with an Internet connection can get entry to it with their machine to view the website.

Technically, you may open up port 80 for your PC and host your internet site there. However, that is generally never achieved due to the fact a normal PC could not be able to take care of the burden of probably hundreds of customer connections, it might placed your personal facts at chance, and you’ll should hold it on with the server running 24/7. So net hosting offerings clear up this problem.

Web hosting services

Web web hosting companies offer space on a server this is owned or leased to be used by way of customers, as well as providing Internet connectivity, usually in a facts middle. They commonly rate a month-to-month fee for this service. A statistics middle is a building that homes a couple of servers. Data facilities generally require substantial cooling and upkeep to maintain the temperature in their machines down, which reduces crash charges and so increases income. Facebook, as an example, has some of the biggest statistics facilities within the world!

Selecting the appropriate web hosting service plays a crucial role in web deployment, however, and is a critical decision.

Web server operating systems

Just like your personal computer has an operating system, Windows, Mac OS, or Linux, servers require an operating system to function too. Although, most server operating systems are specialized for servers and so slightly different from desktop operating systems.


Linux is not one operating system. It is a group of free and open-source operating systems. Typically, Linux is packaged in a form known as a Linux distribution (or distro for short) for both desktop and server use. There are many flavors or distros of Linux for server use. For example,


The benefit of using CentOS is that it is stable and seldom crashes. It is also the most popular distro for servers as of now, so it also has the benefit of great support from the web, which means you won’t be stuck on any issue for long.

Furthermore, most Linux distros update regularly, but CentOS does not. The benefit of this is that once you get your server up and running, it will be in good shape for a long time without having to upgrade to a newer version regularly.

As for the cons, you will have difficulties running newer packages and making use of the latest technologies. If you are looking to use the latest technology, CentOS might not be for you.


Like CentOS, Debian does not update as frequently as well. Debian is also a community distro, which means that new versions of Debian are released only when the community arrives at a consensus. So every Debian release is thoroughly tested and reliable. There is only one kind of Debian available for you to download and install, which works on both server and desktop.


Ubuntu is the most popular Linux distro for the desktop. You might want to go with Ubuntu on your server if you want the advantage of being familiar with it!

Here are some others that you might want to consider,

Windows Server 2022

Windows Server 2022 is the most secure, reliable, and Azure-compatible server Microsoft developed in the 20th century.

Considering the increasing security threats (see research data below) and cyber-attacks, Windows Server 2022 is built with top-notch security parameters, which we will discuss in the following subsections, to ensure the security of data packets up to date at the cluster level. It is a wholesome security package that secures end-to-end IT infrastructure.

Mac OS X Server

macOS Server brings even more power to your business, home office, or school. Designed to work with macOS and iOS, macOS Server makes it easy to configure Mac and iOS devices. It’s also remarkably simple to install, set up, and manage. Add macOS Server to your Mac from the Mac App Store.


Oracle Solaris is the trusted business platform that you depend on. Oracle Solaris 11 gives you consistent compatibility, is simple to use, and is designed to always be secure.

In the next lesson, we’ll look at what a backend engineer is expected to know and do!

Also Read – Basics of JavaScript

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